THE

NATURAL HISTORY

o F

ALEPPO

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THE

NATURAL HISTORY

O F

ALEPPO.

CONTAINING

A DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY, AND THE PRINCIPAL NATURAL PRODUCTIONS IN ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD.

TOGETHER WITH

AN ACCOUNT OF THE CLIMATE, INHABITANTS AND DISEASES; PARTICULARLY OF THE PLAGUE.

By ALEX. RUSSELL, M. D.

THE SECOND EDITION. REVISED, ENLARGED, AND ILLUSTRATED WITH NOTES.

By PAT. RUSSELL, M. D. & F. R. S.

VOL. II.

LONDON:

Printed for G. G. and J. Robinson, Pater-noster-row

1794.

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1194 11. \J.%

Complete set - S. B. N. - 0: 576. 03577. 7 This volume - S.B.N. - 0:576.03202.6

Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England

Printed in offset by Franz Wolf, Heppenheim/Bergstrasse Western Germany

CONTENTS

OF THE

SECOND VOLUME.

BOOK III.

OF THE EUROPEANS RESIDING IN THE CITY; OF THE NATIVE CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH INHABITANTS: AND THE PRESENT STATE OF LITERATURE.

C H A P. I.

OF THE EUROPEANS RESIDING AT ALEPPO.

THE Italian Language generally fpoken Engliih, and French Factories Convents The Dutch The Venetians, and Tuf- cans Houfes of the Europeans Their Table Female So- ciety— Amufements, and Exercifes of the Englifh Emeer, or King of the Arabs Capitulations with the Porte Public Audience of the Bafhaw, the Cady, and the Mohaffil, de- fcribed Public Entry of Confuls The Europeans live un- difturbed in the City, and travel with Security They are feldom attacked by the ufual Epidemic Diftempers - Page I

CHAP. II.

OF THE NATIVE CHRISTIANS, AT ALEPPO.

Number of Chriftian Inhabitants Churches Greeks Greek Nation greatly declined Greek Language oblblete Arme- nians rigidly ftrict in their Lents Feafts Syrians Maronites Lents of the Greeks, Syrians, and Maronites Mo- nafteries Nuns Habit of the Priefl s Bifhops Latin Miffionaries Wakeels, or public Agents for the Chriftian Nations Oppreffion of the Chriftians Manner of Living Cbnftian Women Character of the Men Druggomans, or

DO '

Interpreters

CONTENTS.

Interpreters Maronite Wedding defcribed Management of Children Funeral Ceremonies, &c. Page 28

CHAP. III.

OF THE NATIVE JEWS AT ALEPPO.

Computed Number of Jews Synagogue Ancient Manufcript of the Bible Drefs of the Jews The Hebrew Characters em- ployed in writing Arabic Jews feldom apply to manual Trades Are chiefly Bankers, Merchants, &c. Sober in their Diet Lower Clafs flovenly and dirty Women The High Prieft or Khakhan Sabbath Feafts Fafts Remark- able Faft of Six Days Voluntary Fafts Influence of the Jews in Turkey Jewifh Marriages Intrigues Belief in the Ope- ration of evil Spirits, and Exorcifm Jews remarkably attentive to their Sick Funeral Ceremonies, &c. 58

CHAP. IV.

OF THE PRESENT STATE OF LITERATURE, AT ALEPPO.

Introduction of Literature among the Arabs Neglected by the Turks Said to have revived in fome degree, in the prefent Century Schools Colleges Libraries Manulcripts collect- ed by fome Merchants Philology Theology Juriiprudence Aftronomy Judiciary Aftrology Magic, &c. Mathematics Natural Hiftory Hiftory and Geography Poetry. 88

CHAP. V.

OF THE STATE OF PHYSIC, AT ALEPPO.

Introduction of the Greek Phyfic among the Arabs Medical Practitioners Arabian Writers on Medicine Modern Practice of Phy{ic Chronic Difeafes Empirics Surgery Operation of couching the Cataract Lithotomy Bleeding, Cupping, Scarification Reduction of Fractures and Diflocations. 114

BOOK

CONTENTS.

BOOK IV.

OF QUADRUPEDS, BIRDS, FISHES, AND INSECTS: AND OF THE PLANTS GROWING IN THE ENVIRONS OF THE CITY.

CHAP. I.

OF QUADRUPEDS.

The Ox— Buffalo— Sheep— Goat— Wild Boar— Gazelle— Hare- Rabbit Porcupine Hedge-Hog Jerbua Camel Afs Horfe Dog Cat Rat Moufe Field Mice Hamfter Mole Bat Polecat Jackal Fox Wolf Sheeb Hyama —Lynx Black-eared Cat Panther Lion Bear, &c. Page 145

CHAP. II.

Poultry Game Al Kata defcribed Varieties of Hawks Al Sulwa, or Little Bittern, defcribed Carrier Pigeon, formerly employed at Aleppo Miffel Bird Fieldfare Ring-Ouzel Smurmur, or Locuft Bird, defcribed, &c. - - 192

CHAP. III.

OF FISHES.

Fishes from the River Kowick The Aleppo Eel, fo called Two of the Genus Silurus defer ibed— The Loche Barbel Binny of Forfcal Various Cyprini, &c. Fifties from the Orontes and Euphrates, and the Lake of Antioch common Eel Sheat Fifti Silurus Anguillaris, &c. Sea Fifti from Scanderoon, Cod Red Mullet Sturgeon, &c. - - - 207

CHAP. IV.

OF REPTILES, INSECTS, &C.

Frog River Crab Tortoife Silk Worm Bee Scorpion Sco-

lopendra Serpents Mofqueto Locuft Chameleon, &c. 220

CHAP.

VI

CONTENTS CHAP. V.

OF PLANTS.

Of the Plants in the Environs of Aleppo : and of fome collected in

the Mountains, on the Road to Scanderoon and Latachia. P. 237

BOOK V.

OF THE WEATHER, AND EPIDEMIC DISEASES.

CHAP. I.

Instruments defcribed Abftracl Account of the Weather in the refpeclive Months of the Year Comparative Tables Obferva- tions, &c. - 273

C H A P. II.

Of the Weather from the Year 1741, to the Year 1 75 1 . - 288

CHAP. III. Of Epidemic Difeafes, at Aleppo, in general. - - 298

CHAP. IV. Of the Ephemera, termed the Oca ; and of the Mai d' Aleppo. 307

CHAP. V.

Of the Epidemics, at Aleppo, from the Year 1741, to the Year 1754.315

BOOK VI. OF THE PLAGUE. CHAP. I.

Of the Plague at Aleppo in general. - - ^^^

CHAP. II. Of the Progrefs of the Plague in 1742, 1743, and 1744. 340

CHAP. III.

A Medical Defcription of the Plague, as it appeared at Aleppo in

1742, 1 743' and *744- - - " 549

CHAP.

CONTENTS.

CHAP. IV. Of the Peftilential Eruptions - - - 357

CHAP. V.

Of the Treatment of the Plague. - 362

CHAP. VI.

Of the Method of fhutting up, praclifed by the Europeans in Syria,

for their Prefer vation in Times of Pert ilence. - %*]■$

Notes and Illuftrations. -

Appendix. -

THE

NATURAL HISTORY OF ALEPPO.

BOOK III.

OF THE EUROPEANS RESIDING IN THE CITY; OF THE NATIVE CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH, INHA- BITANTS: AND THE PRESENT STATE OF LI- TERATURE.

CHAP. I.

OF THE EUROPEANS, RESIDING AT ALEPPO.

THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE GENERALLY SPOKEN— ENGLISH, AND FRENCH FACTORIES.— CONVENTS.— THE DUTCH— THE VENETIANS, AND TUSCANS. —HOUSES OF THE EUROPEANS— THEIR TABLE- FEMALE SOCIETY— AMUSEMENTS, AND EXERCISES, OF THE ENG- LISH—EMEER, OR KING OF THE ARABS— CAPITULATIONS WITH THE PORTE— PUBLIC AUDIENCE OF THE BASHAW, THE CADY, AND THE MOHASSIL, DESCRIBED— PUBLIC ENTRY OF CONSULS— THE EUROPEANS LIVE UNDISTURBED IN THE CITY, AND TRAVEL WITH SECURITY— THEY ARE SELDOM ATTACKED BY THE USUAL EPIDE- MIC DISTEMPERS.

T

I.

HE Europeans, or Franks1, redding at Aleppo, c h a p. are Englifh, French, Venetian, Dutch, and Tufcan, or Imperial, fubjecls. The language commonly ufed by

all

Ifrange ^j ;| and in Turkifh Frenk llJuJ. This is now ufed as a general name for all Europeans, and Europe is called Belad al Frange -£j Si/UX,. When they talk with more precifion, they diftinguifh par-

Vol. II. B ticular

2 OF THE EUROPEANS

book all, is the Italian, which is alfo fpoken by the ware- houfemen, writers, and other natives, in the fervice of the Franks. The French merchants ufually converfe among themfelves, and with their warehousemen, in the dialed! of Provence, but in mixed company, they either fpeak French or Italian. Of the Europeans, even thofe who live long in the country, very few acquire more knowledge of the Arabic, than is barely fufficient for familiar converfation, and it is very rare that any of them take the trouble of either learning to read or write it. The Confuls and feveral of the private gentlemen, retain the European drefs ; but many, efpecially of the French and Italians, drefs in the Eaftern habit, retaining only the hat and wig when in town, and wearing the Turban when travelling. It was formerly the cuftom of all, or of moft of the Franks, to wear the Turkifh drefs, retaining the hat by way of diftinclion ; but of late*, the far greater part of the Englifh drefTed in the European fafhion; while other Foreigners, the Conful excepted, or Strangers who made but a fhort flay, adopted the old cuftom. About the year 1770, the few remaining of the Englifh Faclory, complied with the general cuftom, and, together with fome of the French gentlemen, only appeared occafionly in their proper drefs.

ticular countries, as England, France, Italy, &c. Belad al Ingles, Belad al Franfouy, Belad Italia; but Ifrange is never ufed exclusively to fignify a Frenchman in particular. See Note. I.

2 I751-

The

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. 3

The Englifh Factory 3, confifts of a Conful, and ten chap. Merchants ; a chaplain, chancellor, phyfician, and an officer named a Chaufe f, who walks before the Conful carrying a ftaff tipped with filver. In the year 1753, the number of Englifh houfes was eight, exclufive of that belonging to the Conful. In 1772, the number was reduced to four. It appears from P. Teixeira, who was at Aleppo in 1605, that there were then three Englifh families in the Factory, including the Conful who at that time was a Merchant. The annual amount of the trade was eftimated at 300000 Ducats, and two or three fhips were employed annually in the trade.

It is remarked alfo, as a proof of the great trade then carried on by the Europeans at Aleppo, that the hire only of the camels, to fetch and carry goods to and from Scanderoon, though generally very reafonable, " rifes at leaft to 80000 Chequins a year, which is " near 90000 Ducats. A fum I mould have doubted, " had I not computed it very particularly with fome " of thofe gentlemen, for my own fatis faction4".

1 As a matter that might pofiibly intereft the curiofity of fome readers, an abftratt fketch of the firft eftablifhment of the Englifh in the Levant, is inferted in the appendix. Sec Note. II.

•f- Chaoufh (jijl.2*. The Turkifh Crandees have a fimilar officer of ceremony. See vol. i. page 157. The Englifh chaufh takes care of all letters, and defpatches.

4 Travels of Peter Teixeira.

B * There

OF THE EUROPEANS

B ni° K There are two Druggomans, or Interpeters5, Greek natives of Aleppo, who fpeak the Italian, but can fel- dom read or write any other languages than the Arabic and Turkifh. They have falaries from the Levant company. Two Janizaries are kept alfo in conftant pay, and attend at the Confular houfe. They walk before the Conful when he goes abroad, and carry long ftaffs, with which, by ftriking the pavement as they march along, they warn people in the ftreets to give place. They wear no diftinguifhing drefs in ordinary, but on public occafions, the number of Janizaries is increafed, and all wear the ceremonial felt Cap. In going to audience, or in fimilar proceflions of form, the honorary Druggomans walk two and two, immediately behind the Janizaries, who are preceded by the Chaufe.. The officiating Druggomans walk next ; and after them, comes the Conful, followed by all the gentlemen under Britifh protection. In this laft circumftance the ceremonial differs from that of the Turks, among whom it is the invariable cuftom, in all proceflions, for the. principal perfon to come laft6-

The French Faclory is more numerous than the Englifh, each Merchant having a clerk or writer, or a

s Turgeman ^Ua. J

6 The proceffion to an Audience is defcribed by Paul Lucas, Voyage fait en 1714, v. i. p. 282.

perfon

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. 5

perfon under that title, who afterwards becomes a c h a p. partner in the houfe. The refidence of the French in the Levant, is limited to a certain term of years after they take the name of Factors, or Merchants, for which reafon they ufually are fent early in life from Marfeilles, under the denomination of Scrivans, and evade taking the name of Faclor even after they have a- fhare in the bufinefs of the houfe, in order to have it in their power to protract their flay in the country.

The number of French houfes of trade at Aleppo, in 1753, was nme: m I772> tney were reduced tofix or feven. "In 1605" fays Teixeira " there were five French families eftablifhed at Aleppo, but the number of thofe who come and go is much greater than that of the Venetians. About twenty fhips were employed in " the trade, which was computed ta amount annually " to 800,000 Ducats. The French Conful at that time was appointed for life, but adled by a Deputy who paid him annually near 3000 Ducats. He had a particular privilege from the Turk, of protecting any foreign Chriftian, that is not of thofe nations allows ed to trade there, and feveral Flemifh *and Lucquefe " Merchants trade under that protection."

The Conful has his chancellor, chaufe,and Janizaries, and maintains the fame ftate as the Englifh Conful ; but he has precedence at all public audiences, on account of the prior eftablifhment of the French Factory at Aleppo. Under the protection of the Conful, are two or three

French

(C

u a a a

6 OF THE EUROPEANS

book French furgeons, who practice phyfic, one of which is commonly reckoned the national doctor. The Drug- gornans are French fubjecls of the Levant, or elfe native Frenchmen. They are partly educated at Paris, partly at Conftantinople, and while ftudents are called Gio- vani di Lingua. They are afterwards fent from Con- ftantinople to the different fcales, where they rife fuc- ceillvely from the ftation of third, to that of firft Inter- preter.

Befides the merchants, a number of French fubjecls of inferior rank, find their way into the Levant, and by intermarriage with the native chriftians, produce a half French race, or Mezza Razza. A variety of inconve- niences, found to refult from the Conful being obliged to afford protection to people who were often involved in low tranfactions and difputes with the Turks, pro- duced, not many years ago, a royal edict, by which all married fubjecls of his moft Chriftian Majefty were recalled from the Levant, and power was vefted in the Confuls, to remand inftantly to France fubjecls of what- ever rank, who mould marry in future, without fpecial licenfe obtained through the EmbafTador at the Porte. In confequence of this regulation the number of thofe who claim protection is diminifhed; but feveral families ftill remain at Aleppo, of which fome are vifited by the Europeans, and the ladies are an agreeable acceflion to the public affemblies.

The

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. y

The Terra Santa convent, as alfo thofe of the Ca- chap. puchins and the Jefuits, are under the protection of the French Conful. The firft contains about fourteen Fran- cifcan friars, and their church is frequented by all the European catholics, as likewife by many natives of both fexes, from the Iideida. Each of the other convents contain three brothers, and have their chapels within the convents. In the great Khane, there is a fourth convent, confifting of two or three Carmelite friars, which is ufu- ally under the protection of the Imperial Conful. All thofe miffionaries wear the proper habit of their order, except the Jefuits, who drefs in the fame manner as the Maronite priefts.

An account of the Aleppo church, and the dhTentions between the Jefuits and the other convents about the catholic chapel, may be feen in D'Arvieux's Memoires7. According to Pere Nacchi, the Jefuits were firft efta- blifhed at Aleppo in th'e year 1625; and a kind of hifto- rical account of the jefuitical millions into Syria, is given by that learned father. But befides a ftrange mixture of fuperftitious abfurdity, his account is greatly defective in a hiftorical view in point of dates8.

The Dutch Conful, being the fole perfon of that nation at Aleppo, exercifes alfo the profeflion of a merchant :

7 V. 6. p. 72 and 174.

* Memoires des Miflions, v. 4. p. 19.

but

8 OF THE EUROPEANS

book but the Englifh and French Confuls are prohibited en- gaging directly or indirectly in commerce. Since the year 1772, the Dutch confulate has been put on a differ- ent footing, the Conful has regular appointments, with- out benefit of trade.

In Teixeira's time, it appears that there were two fa- milies of Dutch, trading to the value of one hundred and fifty thoufand Ducats, "which is always taken from the " common amount, for fometimes it may be more, " fometimes lefs,"

The Venetians were eftablifhed at Aleppo prior to any of the other European nations. In 1605, there were at Aleppo no lefs than fourteen Venetian families, be- fides the Conful's. They employed five or fix mips year- ly, and their trade amounted from a million to a million and half in gold9. At prefent, they have no Conful of their own nation, neither have .the Tufcans : both, (in 1751) were under the protection of the Englifh Conful, who acted by virtue of commiffions from the refpective EmbafTadors at the Porte. For feveral years preceding that period, the Venetians had been under the protection either of the French or the Englifh; but, foon after 1754, a Conful of thei r own nation came to refide at Aleppo.

The Venetian fubjects, (two merchants excepted) were either Tufcan, or Venetian Jews, who have houfes

9 Teixeira. See Note III.

and

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. g

and warehoufes in the public Khanes, but generally dwell chap. with their families in large, handfome houfes, fituated in Bahfita; and in their manner of living, conform more than the other Europeans, to the cuftom of the natives.

The houfes of the Franks are as commodious as their fituation in the Khanes will admit. The ground-floor is employed for magazines ; the lodging apartments above, communicate with a long gallery, which ferves for a place of exercife in the day time, as the terrace does in the evening. From the month of June, till the firft au- tumnal rains, moll of the Franks fleep on the terrace, but ufe bedfteads with curtains, not lying expofed in the manner of the natives. The houfes of the Englifh are more elegantly furnilhed at prefent than in former times, when the manner in which the trade was conducted leaving them more at liberty to make excurfions, they ufed regularly to pafs feveral months of the year from home, and beftowed more attention on their horfes, tents and camp equipage, than on the embellifhment of their town houfes. Though tolerably cool in the fummer, the walls being very thick, the Frank houfes are not fo agreeably adapted to the climate as the great houfes of the natives; they are more confined, and have neither the fountains, the Divan, the Kaah, nor the court yard.

The Tables of the Europeans are well fupplied with

provifions of all kinds, except fea fifh, which can only

Vol. II. C be

10 OF THE EUROPEANS

book procured frefh in the winter. The cooks, as well as in.

moll of the other menial fervants, are Armenians, but

have been taught French or Englifh cookery, and

only now and then, by way of variety, ferve up fome

of the country dimes. Formal invitations are oftener

given for fupper than dinner, efpecially in the fummer,

and the fervice of the table being nearly the fame

at both, animal food is more eaten at night, than is

cuftomary at genteel tables in England. The wines in

common ufe are a dry white wine of the country, and

a light red Provencal wine. The French prefent

Liqueurs at the Defert. The Englifh drink a draught

of very weak punch, before dinner and fupper; a cuf-

tom found fo delicioufly refreming, that moft of the

other Europeans, many of the native Chriftians, and

fome even of the Turks have adopted it.

The punch is fometimes iced, but ice otherwife is

feldom ufed, though always abundant in the Bazar; the

wine from the Cellars, and the water from the Sah-

reege*, being fufficiently cool. The luxury of iced

creams is hardly known. The French, after they rife

from the defert, prefent pipes, and coffee. The Englifh

remain longer at table, they have the wine fet down

after the cloth is removed, and pipes or Kalians f , are

brought in for fuch as choofe. They commonly fit

* Vol. i. p. 43. ■f lb. p. 122.

about

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. ri

about an hour and a half at dinner, and then retire to c h a p. take a Siefte. They fit longer at flipper; but obferve v » J fuch moderation in drinking, and regularity in hours, that the leaft accidental debauch, difqualifies moft of the company for bufinefs on the following day.

The Europeans have little or no focial intercourfe with the Turks. They feldom fee them but in the way of bufinefs, which is ufually tranfacled through an interpreter, though the Frank himfelf happens to un- derftand the language.

The female fociety is very confined10; for the native Chriftian ladies know no other language than Arabic, and only a few of the Mezza Razza fpeak French. Some of the Englifh gentlemen never vifit the natives of their acquaintance but at the new year; and even thofe who can fpeak the Arabic, feldom vifit in the Jideida. None of the Englifh are married; nor any of the French Factory, the Conful and one of the Drug- goman excepted. The diftance of the Porte of Scan- deroon is an obftacle to many of the fea faring people undertaking the journey to Aleppo ; and unlefs it be a few gentlemen who crofs the Defert, in their way from

IO Circumftances are much altered in this refpecl: fince the year 1752, the female fociety at Aleppo having had an agreeable acceffion of feveral married Ladies from Europe.

C 2 India,

I2 OF THE EUROPEANS

book India, the Englifh feldom have the pleafure of being vifited either by their countrymen, or by other Euro- pean travellers.

In fuch a reclufe fituation, the manner of life, in fome refpecls, refembles the monaftic. The hours of bufinefs and refrefhment, return in regular fucceffion, being feldom interrupted by accidental intrufion ; and the circle of active amufements is fo contracted, that the man who happens not to poffefs the ineftimable art of employing his leifure, muft fubmit to furTer many folitary hours of infipid languor. But as time leflens by de- grees the fondnefs for diverfions too diftant to be attain- ed, neceffity infenfibly. leads to the improvement of fuch as lie within reach: and the pleafures of focial life, though confined within narrow bounds, are enjoy- ed with keener relifh, and, perhaps, are lefs liable to the allay of difappointment, than they are found to be in wider circles.

The Franks, in general, live together in harmony. They entertain reciprocally; they have card parties, weekly concerts, and fometimes, in the Carnaval, mafquerades11. Neither competition in trade nor the

" In the year 1681. The French conful, M. d'Arvieux, found it expedient to forbid mafking in the Carnaval, on account of the young gentlemen going about the ftreets, at night, drefled in female habits. Memoires, v. vi. p, 49.

intervention

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. ,3

intervention of national ruptures in Europe, broke offc h a p. this fbciable intercourfe in Syria. In times of peace, {—~ + ' advice of mefTengers fent to Conftantinople, or other fcales, as well as of the defpatch of mips for Europe, was communicated to all the Franks, by the refpeclive Chaufes. The Englifh had frequent occafion to fend mefTengers to Conftantinople, which gave the French an opportunity of writing overland; they in return had frequent opportunity of obliging the Englifh, by the fhip conveyances to Marfeilles. In war time, advices of this kind, as well as public ceremonies between the Confuls, were fufpended. But the private relation of men brought together by accident in a diftant country, whom choice had led to form friendly connections, ftill remained facred. Individuals continued to vifit and amufe themfelves as ufual; politics were banifhed from converfa- tion, by mutual confent, and without forgetting what they owed to the public caufe, both parties, while they wifhed for peace, continued to remember what in the mean time might be conceded to civility, and private friendfhip.

A Miffionary, defcribing the ceremonial vifits made by the Europeans at the annual feafts, juftly remarks to his correfpondent, that he need not be furprized at thofe mutual civilities among people of different countries, for that French, Englifh, Italians and Dutch, in refpecl to the people among whom they dwelt, confidered them- felves

I+ OF THE EUROPEANS

book felves as perfons of the fame country, and, in that light, were viewed by the natives, who, without diftin£tion, reckoned them all Franks12.

A friendly intercourfe among the Europeans, depends naturally on the difpofition of individuals, and mult therefore vary at different times. In the period of our refidence at Aleppo, much was owing to the amiable difpofition of M. Thomas, who continued above twenty years Conful of France. He had formerly been fecre- tary to the embaffy at Conftantinople, and had ferved alfo as Conful of Algiers and Salonika. A gentleman of a benevolent heart, a pleafing cheerful temper, and porTeft of talents improved by a liberal education. His houfe was open to Europeans of all nations, where they were received in the rnoft hofpitable manner by him and his lady; who on account of her humane attentions, was not lefs beloved by the females under French protection, than her hufband was refpedled by the men. The hap- pinefs of a family in which every one took an intereft, was increafed by the unexpected birth of a daughter, whom fome of the Europeans lived to fee grow up to a fine woman, and whofe fprightly temper, and fweet- nefs of manners, gave fpirit to much gayer amufements than Aleppo had known for many years. The editor trufts for indulgence to this digrefiion ; having often, to- gether with his brother, and in common with the other

Memoires de MifTons. v. viii. p. 309.

Europeans

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. ,-

i.

Europeans of that time, fhared in the hofpitality his c h a p. gratitude wifhes to commemorate.

The Englifh gentlemen keep excellent horfes, and ufually take an airing every day. From the beginning of November to the end of March, they make excur- fions twice a week, and dine in the country. A large tent is pitched for this purpofe, in fome pleafant fitua- tion four or five miles from town. The cook with his kitchen utenfils, fire wood, and provifions, fets out in the morning, at the fame time with the tent-men, who carry, befides the tent, a folding table, chairs, and carpets. The cook fetting to work in the open field, with little or no defence againft the wind or rain, boils, roafts, or even bakes; and with fewer conveni- ences about him than an European cook could well conceive, he prepares five or fix dimes, befides the vicluals for perhaps twenty fervants.

The tent is pitched either on the banks of the river, or on fome verdant fpot near a fountain which may fup- ply frefh water. On this account, Rigib Bafhaw's fountain to the fouth of the townf, is a favorite fitua- tion for the tent. The place is known to the natives by the name Ain al Embaraky, the blefTed fountain, and is frequently mentioned by the Arabian hiflorians. When Saif al Deen came as an auxiliary to Aleppo againft Saladin, he flopped on his way at this fountain;

-J* See vol. i. page. 5.

and

x6 OF THE EUROPEANS.

book and Millek al Daher, when appointed to the govern- ment of Aleppo, by his father Saladin, chofe the fame4 delightful fpot for his encampment, before making his public entry into the city13.

But in order to vary the fcene, as well as to accom- modate the gentlemen, who fet out early in the morn- ing, on hunting or mooting parties, the lituation of the tent is frequently fhifted.

The company begin to afTemble about noon. The horfes, with two legs chained together, and fattened to a fhort flake driven into the ground, ftand at a little diftance on the green. The hawks and greyhounds are placed nearer the tent; and various kinds of game are hung up in trophy at the entrance. The weather for the moft part is delightfully fine; a vivid verdure fucceeds the autumnal rains, and the ploughed fields are covered with the Perfian Lilly, of a refplendent yellow colour. In the depth even of winter the fields are not wholly divefted of beauty : but the verdure of the fpring, with the variegated tints of fruit trees in blbflbm, and wild plants in flower, towards the middle of March, are de- lightful beyond defcription. In all feafons, the profpecl: from the tent is enlivened by the herds and flocks graz- ing on the banks of the Kowick ; and by the caravans which often pafs within view on the heights.

It is on thefe occafions, that the Franks are fometimes

11 Vita Saladin, p. 44. and 65.

vifited

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. I7

vifited by the Emeer, or king of the Arabs, in his way chap. to, or from the city. He is always received with great civility, and together with his retinue, (which feldom exceeds five or fix perfons) is treated with wine, or fpirits, either being more agreeable to the Emeer than coffee.

In the month of April, the Englifh gentlemen retire to the gardens in the neighbourhood of Babulla, where they refide till" towards the end of May ; only coming occafionally to town in the morning, and returning either to dinner, or at night. Their country lodgings are tolerably commodious, and might eafily be made more fo; but the Franks, confidering themfelves as travellers at a Caravanfary, think it needlefs to beftow expenfe on the fuperfluous decoration of houfes not their own property. The garden feafon, on many accounts is fo delightful, that it is with reluclance the gentlemen remove to town; but towards the end of May, though the mornings and nights ftill continue cool, the noontide heats begin to be exceffive, and the fwarms of flies, unlefs the chamber be darkened, become intole- rably vexatious: befides this, the harveft being now over, and the country on all hands parched up, the ride to town becomes hot and unpleafant.

In the courfe of the fummer, they fometimes dine at one of the gardens nearer town, in the fame manner as under the tent ; but fuch excurfions are lefs agreeable,

Vol. II. D for

x8 OF THE EUROPEANS

book for no defence can be devifed againfi: the heat and the ii. &

flies, and there is no proper accommodation for the culiomary Siefle. In the Autumn, fome choofe to pafs a month at one of thefe lefs diltant gardens: a cuftom not general, becaufe dews fall in the night, the mornings and evenings foon become chilly, and the feafon, which is never fo falubrious as the fpring, is rendered ftill lefs fo, by the vicinity of the river, the furrounding plantations, and lownefs of the fituation.

Hunting and hawking will be mentioned here- after15. The fportfmen go out twice a week, during the tent feafon; and earlier in the Autumn, as well as later in the fpring, thofe who are fond of (hooting find abundance of game.

It may be thought from what has been faid, that the. Englifh take a good deal of exercife. Their life,, neverthelefs, is rather fedentary. Mercantile bufi- nefs feldom calls them from home, many hours are fpent in the counting-houfe, or in indolent lounging on the fopha; their exercife, befides what has been defcribed, confifls only of a few turns upon the terrace in the evening, and their ufual pace in riding out an airing feldom exceeds a walk.

The other Europeans ufe in general lefs exercife

15 See on the fubjecl: of the Englifli hunt at Alleppo, Le Brun, Voyage, P- 334-

than

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. !9

than the Englifh. Some keep horfes, but they do not chap. fo regularly make teat, or garden excurfions, and few- er of them are fportmien.

The capitulations fubfifting between the different Chriftian Powers and the Porte, being nearly of the fame tenor, the feveral Frank nations at Aleppo are equally protected by government; and the privileges they enjoy are very confiderable. The confular houfes are refpecled as fancluaries; the officers of juftice cannot enter even the houfes of private Merchants, without permiffion; the cuftom on goods is very favorably rated; and in all fuits at the Mahkamy, exceeding the amount of an inconflderable fum, they have a right to decline the competency of the court, and to carry the caufe to Conftantinople.

The Bafhaw, the Cady, and the MohafTil, give feparate audiences to the refpedlive Confuls; but the MohafTil alone returns the vifit. On thefe occafions, the Conful appears in ftate attended by the Merchants under his protection, as well as all the honorary Druggomans. He is received at the Seraglio with much ceremony. The Bafhaw's retinue are in gala; his foldiery are drawn up after their manner, and his beft horfes, richlv drefled, are ranged in the court yard. Soon after the Conful enters the audience chamber, the Bafhaw makes his appearance, fupported by two officers, and proceeds

D 2 immediately

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book immediately to his place on the Divan, without taking notice of the company as he pafles. The Conful fits down at the fame time with the Bafhaw, a chair of ftate having been previoufly brought from his own houfe16. Two of the principal officers ftand near the Bafhaw ; the gentlemen of the Factory ftand behind the Conful's chair: they fometimes, but not always, are invited to fit down on the Divan. As foon as the Bafhaw is feated, he begins by welcoming the Conful in very polite terms, and then enters into a routine of quef- tions, and profeffions of regard for the Englifh, which, with the compliments made by the Conful in return, and his recommendation of the nation to the protection of His Excellency, fill up the quarter of an hour ufually devoted to an audience. During this converfation, the Conful is entertained fucceffively with fweetmeats, coffee, tobacco, fherbet, and perfume: all which are, by other pages, prefented at the fame inftant, to the Bafhaw. Towards the end of the audience, he orders the Conful to be invefted with an ermine fur. The gentlemen in his fuite, are entertain- ed with the fame refrefhments, tobacco excepted; and

16 A Angular inftance of a difpute between a Bafhaw and the French nation, about the Confular chair, is given by Mr. Drummond. Travels p. iSt;. Let ix. I never know the matter contended j but the inftance given by Mr. Drummond was not the firft of the kind, as appears from Paul Lucas, who gives a tolerably exact account of an audience of a French Conful, in 17 14, Voyage v. i. p. 283.

at

I.

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. 2I

at the time the Conful is inverted, each of them re- c h _a p. ceives a gauze handkerchief, which the page delivers in a manner that furprizes a ftranger; for in the oriental habit, the handkerchief being carried in the bread, not in the pocket, the pages, without regard to the difference of drefs, in delivering the handkerchief, thruft it rather awkwardly under the* breaft of the coat. All the Druggomans pay homage to the Bafhaw, by kneeling down, and kiffing the fleeve of his veft. The two aclino- Druggomans Hand clofe to the ConfuPs chair, but ufually the firft only officiates, and each time a favor- able anfwer is returned to any requeft, or when the- Bafhaw repeats any hyperbolical compliment to the Conful, the Druggoman kneels, and kifles the hem of the Bafhaw's veft. The firft Druggoman, as a mark of approbation, is invefted with an Abai17; the others receive handkerchiefs.

When the Cady gives audience, he is placed on a high throne, formed of Cufhions piled one upon another, fo as to be confiderably higher than the Confular chair: a haughty affeclation of ftate, peculiar to this occafion; for at other times, the Cady fits on the Divan, in the

17 Abai aLc. The outer garment worn by the Arabs. But the fame name is given alfo to a wide long robe of filk, refembling an academical gown, worn by the great men in the fummer ; it is the latter which is meant above. See vol. i. page 105.

fame

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book fame manner as other Grandees. Throughout the whole,

111. . 7

he maintains a demeanour much more diftant and formal than the Bafhaw, while coffee and other refrefhments are prefented to the Conful only.

The MohamTs audience is the longeft and moft fa- miliar. All are feated on the Divan, and politely en- tertained with the ufual refrefhments. Upon going away, the Conful receives a prefent of a horfe, and his fuite are prefented with handkerchiefs.

After each of thefe audiences, a Bukhgee is fent to the Conful, containing a fhawl for a fummer Kurtak, and Shahkfhoors, a filk gauze fhirt and drawers; a hand- kerchief, and a firing for the drawers, finely embroider- ed. Thefe articles, wrapt up neatly in a fquare piece of green filk, form the Bukhgee18.

The MohafUl, in return, pays a vifit to the Conful, and is received with much pomp at the Confular houfe. He is prefented on going away, among other things, with feveral vefts of cloth, and an Engliffi clock, fent out annually by the Levant Company.

Though thefe audiences are attended with a consider- able expenfe, yet, pafling under the public eye, they place the Franks in a refpectable light to the populace. The public entry of a Conful on his firfr. arrival, which

18 It appears from D'Arvieux that the prefents made by the grandees in his time were nearly the fame as at prefent. Memoires, v. vi. p. 225.

is

RESIDING AT ALEPPO. 23

is ufually made by the Englifh and French, has alfo it's chap. ufe in this refpecl, and entertains the people with a fplendid fpeclacle.

Of late years, the public entries have been laid afide, and no doubt were expenfive : but parfimony on certain occaflons, while the popular notion of grandeur and con- fequence remain unchanged, cannot fail to diminifh that exterior refpecl fo generally paid to the Europeans, and which other caufes, as well as the parfimonious cecono- my of certain late erecled Confulates, had before con- fpired to leffen I9.

The Conful is publicly vifited once a year by the Sar- dar, and occafionally by the other grandees ; but he re- turns the vifits of all by his Druggoman. On the two Byrams, he fends complimentary meflages to the mem- bers of the Divan of the city, and the other Agas of diftinclion, accompanied with prefents of fherbet, and fvveetmeats : to which are joined more valuable prefents for particular officers.

In confequence of the regard paid publicly by the go- vernment to the Europeans, they are not only treated with civility by thofe, who, being unconcerned in trafnck, could have no interefted views in their attentions, but they meet generally with a certain degree of refpecl, which even the populace feldom forget, except when pro-

The defcription of a Conful's public entry may be found in D'Arvieux's Memoires, v. v. p. 510. The ceremonies have altered little or nothing fince that time.

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24 OF THE EUROPEANS

book yoked by fome impropriety of behaviour, or fome of- 1 »~> fence againft the manners of the country. In certain remote parts of the town, where Franks feldom appear- ing are regarded as a ftrange fight, they are apt to be in- fulted with abufive language by the lower people, and the boys will fometimes throw Hones : the fhopkeepers, however, or other decent Turks, who happen to be in the way, always interpofe in favour of ftr angers ; and the offenders, where complaint is made, are feverely pu- nifhed. But in all the ftreets, except thofe near the principal Khanes, the Franks are perfecuted by a ridi- culous cuftom, common to feveral other towns in Syria. The women and children, particularly of the lower clafs, the moment they efpy a Frank, begin to exclaim in a loud voice, Frangi Cuku! and clapping their hands, con- tinue to repeat the fame words as long as he remains in fight: adding, if there be time, fome other lines to the ftanza; for it is intended to be rhyme. Whatever may have been the origin of this cuftom, it is not likely to ceafe; the children being carefully taught to lifp the words, before